Parthenon, the Masterpiece of Greek Architecture

Parthenon, the Masterpiece of Greek Architecture

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Category: Architecture and Design Essay
Subcategory: Chinese Architecture
Words: 573
Pages: 1

The Parthenon is known as the masterpiece of Greek architecture. The Parthenon is the most important and characteristic monument of the ancient Greek civilization and still remains its international symbol. The name of the temple comes from the Greek word parthenos, or virgin that is, the goddess Athena. It was dedicated to Athena, the patron goddess of Athens. The temple stands on a hill called the "Acropolis" which overlooks the city. The Parthenon was the first building to be constructed on the Acropolis. At that time there were no buildings in Athens because of the war between Athens and Persia. Consequently, they wanted to rebuild his city. Many thought that the first building to be built must be a temple to Athena, their patron goddess. It was she who saw them through that war. The temple was built between 447 and 438 B.C. Pericles initiated the construction of the monument the supervisor of the whole work was Phidias, the famous Athenian sculptor, while Ict! inus and Callicrates were the architects of the building. The Parthenon combines an element of the Doric and Ionic orders. It is surrounded by forty-six Doric columns standing at thirty-four feet high. The design used for these columns was a technique called fluting. Each column has exactly 20 grooves. The central part of the temple, called the cella, sheltered the famous cult statue of Athena, made by Phidias. The larger of the two interior rooms, the naos, housed the cult statue. The Metopes (statues) on the Parthenon are about 1.20 meters high and the width is between 0.15 to 0.80 meters. The metopes of the Parthenon all represented various instances of the struggle between the forces of order and justice, on the one hand, and criminal chaos on the other. Shown on the west side are twelve metopes of the mythical battle against the Amazons (Amazonomachy). Shown on the south, thirty-four metopes of the battle between the Lapiths and the Centaurs...

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